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Compiled By: Rtn Gangaram Shamdas Purswani (P.H.F.)

Larkana District (Sindhi: ضلعو لاڙڪاڻو; Urdu: ضلع لاڑکانہ‎) is a district of Sindh province of Pakistan . Its main city is Larkana. It is home district of two former Prime Ministers of PakistanZulfikar Ali Bhutto and Benazir Bhutto and also the district of former Chief Minister of SindhMumtaz Ali Bhutto. Actress Sohai Ali Abro and also Folk Singer Abida Parveen belongs to Larkana.

Other towns of the district include RatoderoDokriBakrani and Naodero. In 2005, the Government of Pakistan under Pervez Musharraf bifurcated the district, forming a new district called Qamber and Shahdadkot, with two towns of Qambar Khan and Shahdadkot.


The district of Larkana is administratively subdivided into the following tehsil: Dokri, Bakrani, Larkana, Ratodero, Naudero


Some 10 km away from Larkana city, sugarcane is cultivated and processed at the Larkana Sugar Mills (Pvt) Ltd. which was inaugurated by then Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto on January 30, 1974.

Larkana’s guava and berries are famous both nationally and internationally, the annual output of the district stands at thousands of tons. All the villages of Larkana on the right bank of River Indus have vast guava orchids spread over thousands of acres, located in Dodai, Mahotta, Naudero, Chooharpur, Agani, Metla, Izzat Ji Wandh, Phulpota and other villages.

Larkana (Urdu: لاڑکانہ‎, romanizedlāṛkānaSindhi: لاڙڪاڻو‎, romanized: lāṛkāṇo) is a city located in the Sindh province of Pakistan. It is called the city of Holy Alams (Shia Muslims’ religious flag) due to the greatest number of Holy Alams as compared to other cities or regions of the world. It is the 15th largest city of Pakistan by population.  It is home to the Indus Valley Civilization site Mohenjo-daro.  The historic Indus River flows in south of the city. The city is located within Larkana District. Formerly known as “Chandka”, Larkana is located on the south bank of the Ghar canal, about 40 miles (64 km) south of the town Shikarpur, and 36 miles (58 km) northeast of Mehar. According to the 2017 Census of Pakistan, its population is 490,508.  Therefore, it is the fourth most populated city of Sindh province after Karachi, Hyderabad, and Sukkur. Moreover, Larkana city has been placed as fifteenth largest of Pakistan during Census 2017.

Larkana, town and district, Sukkur division, Sindh province, Pakistan. The town, the district headquarters, lies on the Ghar Canal just west of the Indus River; it derives its name from the neighbouring Larak tribe. A railway junction, it is divided into two parts by the rail lines: the old city to the east and Lahori village and the Civil Lines (mostly official residences) to the west. It was incorporated as a municipality in 1855. It is an important grain-marketing and trade centre and is noted for its brass and metalware. A number of markets, bazaars, and shopping centres are located there, including the John F. Kennedy Market. Larkana has historically been known for its gardens and parks, some of which have been maintained. Once the capital of Sindh under the Kalhoras, it contains many historic buildings.

Larkana district, formed in 1901, occupies a fertile plain known as the “Garden of Sindh,” except for its mountainous western portion (Kirthar Range). Irrigated by canals, the plain yields sugarcane, wheat, rice, gram, rape, and fruit such as guavas, mangoes, and dates. Camel breeding is widespread, and there are numerous rice-husking, flour, and dyeing mills. Coarse salt and saltpetre are easily obtainable. Mohenjo-daro (“Mound of the Dead”), a key archaeological site of the Indus valley civilization (c. 2500 BCE), lies 15 miles (24 km) south of Larkana, and there is an airport nearby. Local schools and educational institutions include Cadet College Larkana, Chandka Medical College, and Sir Shahnawaz Bhutto Library. The seat of the prominent Bhutto family, the district is also the site of the ancestral cemetery where former prime ministers Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Benazir Bhutto are buried. Pop. (1998 prelim.) 270,366.

Larkana, the fourth largest city of the province, Sindh, is known as “Eden of Sindh”. The city has a great historical significance and is closely associated with some of the famous political personalities of Pakistan. Surrounding areas of Larkana include Shikarpur town, Sukkur, Ghar canal and many archeological sites such as Mohenjo-Daro.

The following are elements of culture with Larkana;


Talking about the geographical features of the city, Larkana lies within the Larkana District and is bounded by Baluchistan province, Shikarpur and district of Khairpur and Dadu district to the south. Khirthar range extends along the west consisting of a wide range of hills and mountains; highest peak of Sindh was reported to be in the Sindh segment of Khirthar range, a few years back.


Larkana is commonly called “Larkano” in Sindhi by the local people residing there. Sindhi speaking population in Larkana outweighs the rest of the population or tribes who speak other languages such as Urdu, Baluchi, Brohi, Punjabi, Pashto and Seraiki. Although the literacy rate in Larkana is comparatively low as compared to remaining Talukas (tehsils) of the Larkana District but the language, English is also understood by some people living in urban areas of the city. All in all, Sindhi is well understood and commonly spoken by majority of the population.


Majority of the population in this city is that of Muslims i.e. 90 plus percent however, a number of Hindus can be seen practicing their rituals. Both the Muslims and the Hindus live peacefully in the city.


People of Larkana wear Shalwar Kameez which is the national dress of Pakistan and is worn by men and women in all provinces of Pakistan. The uniqueness about the clothing style of people here is Ajrak and Sindhi topi. Men are usually seen carrying an Ajrak on their shoulders wearing it around their neck. Ajrak is a symbol of Sindhi culture; it is basically a shawl with a variety of design, consisting of block prints and tiles and is available in different colors in the city. It is worn in various occasions such as social gatherings, Eid, weddings etc. Ajrak is also a part of school uniform in some girls schools of Larkana; school going girls are usually seen wearing ajrak as a head scarf. This is basically to promote the cultural heritage of Sindh.

Customs and traditions

Various customs and traditions can be observed if one gets a chance to visit the city; Pirs and murshids are given due respect by masses belonging to rural areas of the city as well as a few sects from urban areas. People visit the shrines of such pirs and perform various rituals and urs ceremonies. There are a number of shrines in Larkana such as shrine of Syed Qasim Shah Bokhari, shrine of Bhutto family and many others. As far as celebrating rituals and festivals are concerned, festivals such as Sindhi topi and ajrak day, folk song festival etc are celebrated throughout the year. The main aim of such events/festivals is to promote cultural heritage through display of sindhi songs, the famous being, “jiye sindh jiye sindh wara jiyan sindhi topi ajrak wara jiyan”, wearing traditional dresses, singing folk songs and playing musical instruments such as yaktaro (a colorful single string instrument), dholaks and tabla in the memory of some well known sufis. Most of the men and women are also seen doing the traditional jhoomar dance at weddings and festivals. Moreover, shooting and kodi kodi are the traditional games that are very common in the area of Larkana; wrestling is usually a part of most of the festivals that take place here.


People of Larkana are well wishers and very hard working people. The locals welcome their guests warmly and in a friendly manner. People of Larkana consider Ajrak of a great esteem and also present it as a gift to their guests which displays their affection. Sindhi rilli (embroider carpeting) are also seen in houses of many locals and many women can be seen sewing these embroidered carpets. Rilli is also presented as a gift to their guests by locals of Larkana.

Food and agriculture

Larkana is famous for guava fruit; Ratodero and Larkana are famous for abundance of guava orchards. A fertile land surrounds Larkana which produces all kinds of crops, fruits and some vegetables for example matter, guava, rice, maize, mustard and sugarcane. However, the unique crop of guava is sown and harvested in abundance in the area of Larkana in the entire Sindh province. A major chunk of this fruit is then exported to other countries as well. Apart from guava, lotus root (also known as “bhay” in sindhi) is very famous and eaten by locals a lot. Many visitors enjoy this vegetable dish when they visit Larkana. Sugarcane is cultivated and processed in sugar mills at Nau Dero.

 Various migratory birds are found on the wetlands, beside the river Indus.

Archeological, religious and other sites

Larkana is famous for archeological sites. One of such examples is none other than Mohenjo Daro which dates back to 500 years. This site is a huge attraction for tourists from all over the world. Mohenjo Daro is situated on 25-28 minutes of drive from Larkana and has a historical significance of Indus Valley civilization. Another archeological site in Larkana is Jhoker Jo Daro which is also a main source of attraction for tourists. Apart from archeological sites there are a number of religious sites and famous markets such as Allah Wali Masjid, Resam gali, Sonarki market, Machi (fish) market and Khataan market, which sells various pickle flavours.


There are a number of old schools including coeducation and separate schools for boys as well as girls. Larkana railway station is also located in middle of city and airport is located near Mohenjo Daro.

The city of Larkana has great historical significance. The culture of Larkana has a lot to offer for increase in knowledge and information which is related to history as well.


Cadet College Larkana, was inaugurated by the former Prime Minister of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto in 1994, first planned by her late father Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1975. The College is located 24 kilometres (15 mi) away from Larkana, and some 3 kilometres from Moen-jo-Daro.  Now there are colleges universities

  • Govt. Degree College Larkana
  • Shaheed Zufiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology Larkana
  • Govt. College of Technology Larkana
  • Sindh Science College Larkana
  • Global Science College Larkana
  • Govt. Chandka Medical College Larkana
  • Benazir College of Nursing
  • QUEST Larkana
  • Allama Open University Larkana


Moenjodaro Airport is located near Mohen-jo-daro, 28 km away to the south of the city of Larkana, about 5 kilometres away from Dokri. The main users of the airport are Pakistan International Airlines, the country’s national flag-carrier. The outdated infrastructure of the airport prevents the use of large, advanced aircraft, with the PIA largely using Fokker aeroplanes for flights.


The predominant first language of the district is Sindhi, which according to the 1998 census was spoken natively by 98% of the population in the talukas of DokriLarkana and Ratodero.[7]


The Larkana Bulls cricket team in Larkana, team was established in 2013

Larkana Cricket Stadium alternatively called as Shaheed Mohtarama Benazir Bhutto International Cricket Stadium was built by Pakistan Cricket Board in Garhi Khuda Bakhsh near the tomb of Benazir Bhutto.[8][9]


Larkana is situated at Latitude 24 56′ 00′ and Longitude 67 11′ 00′.[9] It is situated in northwest part of Sindh and it has own division. It is also included in Upper Sindh.


Larkana has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) with extremely hot summers and mild winters. The highest recorded temperature is 53 °C (127 °F), and the lowest recorded temperature is −4 °C (25 °F). The annual rainfall is 127.4 mm (5.02 in), and mainly occurs in the monsoon season (July–September). The highest annual rainfall ever is 580.2 mm (22.84 in), recorded in 1994 and the lowest annual rainfall ever is 7.1 mm (0.28 in), recorded in 1938.